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Aircraft Components

Aircraft Components

↪ The Aircraft is a device that is used for or is intended to be used for, flight in the air.

↪ The airframe of a fixed-wing aircraft consists of five principal units: the fuselage, stabilizers, wings, flight control surfaces and landing gear.
⟹ The skin of Aircraft is can be made from a variety of materials, ranging from impregnated fabric to plywood, aluminum, or composites.
Aircraft Structure:
⟾ The fuselage is the main structure or body of the fixed-wing aircraft. It can provide space for cargo, passengers, controls, accessories, and other equipment. In single-engine aircraft, the fuselage houses the powerplant.
The Wings are airfoils that, when moved rapidly through the air, create lift.
The Nacelles are streamlined enclosures is used primarily to house the engine and its components. They are usually present around or elliptical profile to the wind thus reducing aerodynamic drag.

The empennage of an aircraft is also known as the tail section. Most empennage designs consist of a tail cone, fixed aerodynamic surfaces or stabilizers, and movable aerodynamic surfaces.
Flight Control Surfaces:
The directional control of a fixed-wing aircraft takes place around the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical axes by means of flight control surfaces designed to create a movement about these axes.
Primary Flight Control Surfaces:
The primary flight control surfaces on a fixed-wing aircraft include ailerons, elevators, and the rudder. The ailerons are attached to the trailing edge of both wings and when moved, rotate the aircraft around the longitudinal axis.
Ailerons are the primary flight control surfaces that move the aircraft about the longitudinal axis. In other words, movement of the ailerons in flight causes the aircraft to roll.
The elevator is the primary flight control surface that moves the aircraft around the horizontal or lateral axis. This causes the nose of the aircraft to pitch up or down
The rudder is the primary control surface that causes an aircraft to yaw or move about the vertical axis.
Secondary or Auxiliary Control Surfaces:
There are several secondary or auxiliary flight control surfaces.
Flaps are found on most aircraft. They are usually inboard on the wings’ trailing edges adjacent to the fuselage. Leading-edge flaps are also common.
Another a leading-edge device which extends wing camber is a slat. Slats can be operated independently of the flaps with their own switch in the cockpit.
Spoilers and Speed Brakes:
A spoiler is a device found on the upper surface of many heavy and high-performance aircraft. It is stowed flush to the wing’s upper surface.
The force of the air against a control surface during the high speed of flight can make it difficult to move and hold that control surface in the deflected position.
A the winglet is an obvious vertical upturn of the wing’s tip resembling a vertical stabilizer.
Landing Gear:
The landing gear supports the aircraft during landing and while it is on the ground. Simple aircraft that fly at low speeds generally have fixed gear. This means the gear is stationary and does not retract for flight. Faster, more complex aircraft have retractable landing gear.
⤳ There are five major stresses to which all
aircraft are subjected:
• Tension
• Compression
• Torsion
• Shear
• Bending
Compression is the stress that resists a crushing force.
Torsion is the stress that produces twisting. While moving the aircraft forward, the engine also tends to twist it to one side, but other aircraft components hold it on course.

Tension: is the stress that resists a force that tends to pull something apart.
Shear: is the stress that resists the force tending to cause one layer of a material to slide over an adjacent layer.

Bending: stress is a combination of compression and tension.

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