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  • The introduction of all-metal, stressed skin aircraft resulted in methods and types of fabrication which
  • remain in use to the present day.
  • However, improvements in engine performance and advances in aerodynamics have led to higher maximum lift, higher speeds, and therefore to higher wing loadings so that improved techniques of fabrication are necessary, particularly in the construction of wings.
  • The increase in wing loading from about 350N/m2 for 1917–1918 aircraft to around 4800N/m2 for modern
  • aircraft, coupled with a drop in the structural percentage of the total weight from 30 to 40 to 22 to 25 percent, gives some indication of the improvements in materials and structural design.
  • For purposes of construction, aircraft are divided into a number of subassemblies. These are built
  • in specially designed jigs, possibly in different parts of the factory or even different factories, before
  • being forwarded to the final assembly shop.
  •  A typical breakdown into subassemblies of a medium-sized civil aircraft.
  •  Each subassembly relies on numerous minor assemblies such as spar webs, ribs, and frames, and these, in turn, are supplied with individual components from the detailed workshop.

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