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  • Whenever a machine is in operation, be it a simple machine like a lever or a screw, or a a more complex machine like an aircraft piston engine or a hydraulically operated landing gear.
  •  the parts and pieces of that machine will experience  something called stress.
  •  Whenever an external force is applied to an object, like a weight pushing on the end of a lever, a reaction will occur inside the object which is known as stress.  
  • Stress is typically measured in pounds per square foot or pounds per square inch (psi).
  • The external force acting on an object causes the stress to manifest itself in one of five forms, or combination of those five.
  •  The five forms are tension, compression, torsion, bending, and shear.

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