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Centrifugal flow compressors

 Centrifugal flow compressors

  •  Centrifugal compressors are used in small gas turbines and are the driven units in most gas turbine compressor trains.
  • They are an integral part of the petrochemical industry, finding extensive use because of their smooth operation, large tolerance of process fluctuations, and their higher reliability compared to other types of compressors.
  • Centrifugal compressors range in size from pressure ratios of 1:3:1 per stage to as high as 13:1 on experimental
  • models. Discussions here are limited to the compressors used in small gas turbines. This means that the compressor pressure ratio must be between 3–7:1 per stage.
  • This is considered a highly loaded centrifugal compressor. With pressure ratios, which exceed 5:1, flows entering the diffuser from the rotor are supersonic in their Mach number (M > 1:0). This requires a special design of the
  • diffuser. In a typical centrifugal compressor, the fluid is forced through the impeller
  • by rapidly rotating impeller blades.
  • The velocity of the fluid is converted to pressure, partially in the impeller and partially in the stationary diffusers. Most of the velocity leaving the impeller is converted into pressure energy in the diffuser.
  • The the diffuser consists essentially of vanes, which are tangential to the impeller. These vane passages diverge to convert the velocity head into pressure energy. The inner edge of the vanes is in line with the direction of the resultant airflow from the impeller.

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